3c. 5. The Forest Services Division (FSD) of the Forestry Commission (FC) is implementing the Modified Taungya System (MTS) as a strategy for plantation development with the active involvement of rural communities. forest tree crops, agriculture crop yields declined and agroforestry was no longer possible. depending on the country and locality(s eeChapter 6 for details of the taungya system). taungya A Burmese word that is now widely used to describe the practice, in many tropical countries, of establishing tree plantations by planting and tending tree seedlings together with food crops. 1. Shifting Cultivation and Taungya System It refers to farming of agricultural systems in which land under vegetation is cleared, cropped with agricultural crops for year, and then left unattended while the natural vegetation regenerates. - Contribution of taungya system to forest cover and livelihoods of communities 17 temperature ranges between 27˚C and 35˚C while the minimum lies between 19˚C and 23˚C. Taungya is a system of forest management in which land is cleared and planted initially to food crops. 35.07 percent were satisfied with their current farming practice. An example of ley is a meadow in the country. It has its origins in Southeast Asia (Burma, now Myanmar and Thailand) where it was introduced in a bid to restore tree cover following shifting cultivation. A peer learning workshop, Good Practices in Taungya system, was organised in Hakha, capital of Chin, 16-17 June, 2016 by Chokhlei Organisation for Rural and Agriculture Development (CORAD),Group of Research and Exchange […] Since 2001, Ghana has introduced a number of forest-based strategies to improve the liveli-hoods of forest communities, restore the country's forest cover and address . deforestation of the reserve and the failure of the State-sanctioned Taungya system of farming in the reserve to regenerate the forest. Teak Leaves Asia: The first teak plantation outside Asia was introduced in Nigeria in 1902. Taungya system is a form of agroforestry system in which short term crops are grown in the early years of the plantation of a woody perennials species in order to utilize the land, control weeds, reduce establishment costs, generate early income and stimulate the development of the woody perennials species. shifting agriculture destroys vast forest areas annually. Taungya is a method of planting forest trees in combination with food crops. Each year, a larger area of the reserve was assigned to taungya farmland. It is a short-period system (1-2 years), as it can not be sustained after the closure of the tree canopy. The system was started for the first time in Burma in 1856. The results showed that taungya farming system is mostly influenced by income level and farm size of the farmers and that they made gains in food crops yields and income generation, which reduced poverty considerably as compared with non-taungya farmers. transitional zone of the country. Agroforestry is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland. But after the success of the Taungya method gained popularity, seeds from Myanmar were imported and used, and teak plantations in the country reached new levels of success. One thrust in farming systems research-extension (FSRE) is to understand and unravel these complicated systems so that, wherever possible, innovations may be introduced without disturbing the . on some form of mechanised farming. In Nigeria, land degradation in the form of erosion oriented, soil physical property deterioration, vegetation degradation and hydrological changes are remotely caused by man's inefficient usage of land and its resources. The taungya system has been widely used in India, Belize (British Honduras), Trinidad and Tobago, Nigeria and other West African countries (Evans 1992). Myanmar is the largest country in mainland Southeast Asia, with 70% of the population working in agriculture, [1] although arable land makes up a relatively low 19% of national territory. To these two strands of forest policyreforms, which evolved independently, Taungya is a system offorest management in which land is cleared andplant- ed initially to food crops. The interesting thing about this country is that as you travel in various directions, you see a change in culture, food habits, attire, language, and agriculture system. Variety Of Agroforestry Systems For Environmental Sustainability Taungya Farming: (, [5]. Taungya system, one of the reforestation techniques by employing shifting cultivators or land hungers, was devised based on shifting cultivation practice. Work done entirely by taungya farmers; 100% of demarcated area Central 105 Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, and International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. 3c1. Taungya system: In Burmese, 'Taung' means hill and 'ya' means cultivation i. e. taungya means hill cultivation. Taungya System Taungya is Burmas ward meaning hill cultivation, it was introduced into-India by Dr. Brandis in 1890 and the first Taungya plantation was raised in 1896 in north Bengal. The neighboring countries in South and Southeast Asia are relatively better off in this respect. in cultivated land. In 1979, however, the number of taungya farmers had fallen to 17,744 (table 2), despite the facts that the area of traditional taungya remained nearly the same and that in some states taungya farms were not planted with trees. Widespread food shortage may result unless quick measures are taken to control its spread to residual forest lands within and outside the forest estate. Taungya farming as it is practiced in Nigeria has a symbiosis presentation in that the landless prospective farmers are allowed to farm the government forest reserves with or without payment of any form of rent but the Introduction. Seedlings of desirable tree species are then planted on the same plot, leading in time to a harvestable stand of timber. Food cropping is ended after 1-2 years as the trees grow up. Native and migrant farmers have access to Taungya plots for farming in the reserve. . Agrosilviculture: Agriculture is the primary (major) components and the trees are secondary, e.g., multipurpose trees on farm land, hedgerow or alley cropping, intercropping of trees, home gardens. such changes is the emergence of Taungya agroforestry practice within the forest reserves in Nigeria. In the eight countries where the empirical part of our work was done, the forest cover declined between 10 and 24 percent during the 1980s (table 1). Taungya farming is a system of raising forest plantation along with crop husbandry. 4d. 0.191 Purchase food crop-tree planting interaction 2 1.25 - 0130.2 0.112 Rent Programme (Taungya) 3 21.25 - 130.17 0.412 Shareholding 4 7.50 + 5 0.382 Government land (Taungya) Farming Farming experience measured in number + experience of years a farmer has been engaged in 0 18.75 0.1880 0.393 up to 5 years farming 1 38.75 .3880. This has motivated farmers and scientist to develop agroforestry innovations such as Taungya system, in order to obtain grains along with timber products as is the case of Nigeria, Kenya, Tanzania, Burkina Faso and Ghana among other African countries (Chamshama et al., 1992; Adekunle et al., 2004; Blay et al., 2008; Kalame et al., grandis) by using a method he called "taungya," and presented . Firstly, seeds from India were used. The origin of the taungya system can be traced back to 1862, when the colonial British employed Burma's taungya tribes for raising teak plantations along with their paddy (rice). The households got mainly their income from farm, off-farm, non-farm, and Norn from the forest department. Find out the list of local names of shifting cultivation around the world which will be useful for the UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc. Several alternatives and improvements to taungya have been attempted in Ghana, most of them with the objective of providing better living and social conditions for the tenants. Although the taungya scheme had been envisaged to serve the local farming population, it soon attracted immigrant farmers from more densely populated areas of the country, leading to an increase in the overall population pressure on the reserve. ii. The Taungya Farming system provides a source of income to the government. Taungya Farming system is an economic way of replacing unwanted forest with desirable tree species. Other causes are inadequate on-farm conservation and shortened bush fallow with inadequate supply of farmyard manure. Shifting cultivation, taungya and home garden BIKASH ACHARYA-2072. The word rarely finds a place even in the standard dictionaries, but in the rare cases it is traced to the French language and its meaning denotes a certain form or method of agro-forestry farming. The second type of taungya is the Oepartmental taungya' (farming for pay type) in which both the trees and food crops belong to the government or the forestry department that supplied labour for the farming and tree-plating operations. . Similarly, since 1950, the area under forest plantations has increased substantially in the tropics. A survey was conducted in March 2001 at the Ruvu Fuelwood Pilot Project, which was situated within the Ruvu North Forest Reserve in Kibaha, Tanzania. The former has led Nepal is . This HCV assessment report covers only the initial 2 Taungya is a Burmese word which literally means hill cultivation (taung — hill, ya — cultivation). taungya farming as it is practiced in nigeria has a symbiosis presentation in that the landless prospective farmers are allowed to farm the government forest reserves with or without payment of any. Under taungya, farmers were allowed to cultivate crops amongst teak ( Tectona grandis ) for the first The UNCED also met in Washington, USA in policy implications. But after the success of the Taungya method gained popularity, seeds from Myanmar were imported and used, and teak plantations in the country reached new levels of success. Taungya is a farming system commonly established in young teak ( Tectona grandis) plantations of Indonesia. Taungya farming is a special arrangement between the forestry department and farmers, which combines the production of both arable and forest tree cops simultaneously on a piece of land. Instead of being excluded after 3 years as in the old TS, farmers are entitled to the MTS plots until the tree crops mature. Though this system was highly successful in raising some of the finest teak (Tectona grandis) plantations in the country, it soon became unpopular due to exploitative management of the labour used for raising the 'taungya' plantations and As a land-use system, it serves the diverse needs of . iii. Agroforestry refers to the combination of agriculture and forestry practices within a farming system. 4. Farming in developing countries is a complex interaction ofmany components that have evolved into various systems in different ecological regions. . This taungya type is the most commonly practiced in Ogun, Ondo and Oyo states. In 1979, however, the number of taungya farmers had fallen to 17,744 (table 2), despite the facts that the area of traditional taungya remained nearly the same and that in some states taungya farms were not planted with trees. The forestland is released to the farm- . When this happens, the taungya system is unable to provide the daily food needs and livelihood of the people practicing it. noun. and technical efficiency of Taungya farming in Nigeria for its chemical. farming on that piece of land when the tree canopy closes. In Indonesia, Malaysia and other tropical countries of southeast Asia, the practice is remarkably similar to that of shifting cultivation in Western Africa. Quarantine regulations are established so as to. Taungya farming is the forerunner to agroforestry. Mean annual rainfall ranges between 1000 mm and 1500 mm. agroforestry systems, however, this taungya method is highly evaluated because this is only the method which aims to establishing a pure man-made forest without agriculture. 2. tion of fragile agricultural lands. Taungya farming is the fore-runner to agroforestry. Explanation: Slash farming or burn agriculture is also known as primitive subsistence farming. Gender Equity Under the Modified Taungya System of Ghana (Abugre, Asare & Anaba) 137 expand their canopy (Nair 1993). 3 The terms used to describe the system vary enormously. Although the original taungya scheme had en-visaged using local villagers, Okomu was soon attracting Igbos from densely populated Data obtained from 100 farmers that 1997 and Japan in 1998 to review actions taken by were selected using multistage sampling technique were various countries of the world in addressing In the two countries with the highest population density (El Salvador and Haiti), only 6.2 and 1.3 percent of for-est cover remained by 1990. Taungya farming involves the growing of annual or biennial agricultural crops along with the forest species during the early years of establishment of the forest plantation (Jordan et. Taungya farming is a special arrangement between the forestry department and farmers , which combines the production of both arable and forest tree cops simultaneously on a piece of land. About 80% of the total population derive their income from agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery to sustain… What is the difference between Taungya farming and ley farming? Understanding the behavior of taungya farmers is crucial for better management of taungya plantation projects but so far little research has been conducted on this . The land is always protected against erosion. It is of Burmese origin and means, "hill" (Taung), "cultivation" (ya) (Nair, 1993). The reserve was surrounded by communities involved in jointly managing and using forest resources therefrom. Migrant farmers access admitted forest reserve lands for cocoa farming (Section 4.1). While the clauses in the Farmland Law related to taungya were inserted by Pyidaungsu Hluttaw representatives after lobbying by the Land Core Group and other civil society organisations, the bylaws were drafted by the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation without public consultation or parliamentary oversight. This decline may reflect the continuing lack of recruits to traditional taungya farming (Olawoye 1975; Ball 1977). It is basically type of farming where farmer grow crops to provide shelter to their families and to feed them. 3. Taungya has generally proved a failure as a forestry technique in Nigeria. The casual by-day jobs . The practice was adopted inVandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State Nigeria in mid 1950s up to 2000. Teak Leaves Asia: The first teak plantation outside Asia was introduced in Nigeria in 1902. Although there are various ways of doing farming, here I wish to throw light on three systems of farming that are indigenous to our country and still followed. Migrant farmer calls on chief for land for cocoa farming. Description: ABSTRACT" "Taungya system that originally started in 19th century British Burma is now applied in many countries to serve as a tool for reforestation of degraded areas. Notes on Agroforestry BSc fourth year first Semester Downloaded From: 2 Unit 1: Introduction 1. B) Taungya farming C) deforestation D) selective exploitation. Shifting cultivation and improved fallow • The term shifting cultivation refers to farming or agricultural systems in which land under natural vegetation is cleared, cropped with agricultural crops for a few years, and then left fallow while the natural vegetation regenerates . A simpler system, the use of agriculture crops for assisting in the establishment of forest plantations (taungya) is widespread, and in Africa as elsewhere shifting agriculture provided, in the past, a sustainable land-use system which is only now breaking down under the pressure of increasing populations. production in the country thereby contributing to wealth creation and reduction in rural poverty. Authors: Lalita Adhikari 1, Dikshit Poudel 2 Faculty of Forestry, Agriculture and Forestry University, Nepal Faculty of Agriculture, Agriculture and Forestry University, Nepal Nepal is a developing country with an area of 1,47,181 km2 and population 2,90,18,803. Blanford (1925) stated reforestation of teak (Tectona grandis) in Myanmar and Bangladesh was initiated in the 1840s and the taungya system was implemented at first in Silvopasture: Trees constitute the primary (major) component of land use with In German-speaking countries it is called baumfeldwirtschaft, brandwirtschaft, or waldfeldbau. A Dictionary of Ecology Taungya is believed to have been developed by the British in Burma during the nineteenth century. Taungya Abstract and Figures. Answer C. Q22. (ii) Taungya Farming: This is the planting of arable crops at early stages of forest establishment and the arable crops are harvested before the trees form canopies. Hence, in the country where about two third of population solely rely on agriculture, most of the people lives in rural areas, having over exploitation of forest reserve, migration from hilly areas to terai and forest encroachment, frequent natural hazards, declining soil fertility and productivity are the prevailing problems, a wise, natural . S lash farming or slash agriculture is the other name of 'primitive subsistence farming'. Using Stratified random sampling, two sets of questionnaire were used to appraise the productivity of . The taungya system was introduced to the WestAfrican sub-region with the aim of addressing land hunger . al., 1992). . Cash-cropping and taungya were early attempts at multiple use of the land. The other type of agri-silvicultural system, known as "farming for pay" or "direct taungya", was introduced in Nigeria in 1971 by the Forest Department of the South Eastern State Government under "project 44" of their 1970-74 four-year development plan. The timber seedlings are protected by the food crops in their early stage of life. However, it has a wider scope not only crop and livestock production but also covers fisheries and forest management. this period, the percentage of the country's economically active population that depended on agriculture declined from over 40% to a mere 2%, and yet they produced abundant food supplies not only for domestic demand, but a huge exportable surplus. Agro-forestry is a sustainable land use system and practice in which woody perennials (trees, shrubs) are grown with herbaceous annuals (crops, pasture grass) integrating livestock (animals, birds . Spears (1980) stated that most of Kenya's afforestation programme has been carried out using the taungya system. In contrast to the Taungya system, the MTS is a more localized forest management practice in which forest communities are given portions of degraded forest lands within reserves to inter-plant food crops with forest trees, and further nurture trees into maturity under an Chief liaise with migrants to facilitate access to land in the reserve for cocoa farming. of high farming population where demand for farm-land is high. Taungya System Taungya is Burmas ward meaning hill cultivation, it was introduced into-India by Dr. Brandis in 1890 and the first Taungya plantation was raised in 1896 in north Bengal. 4b. cultivation, taungya cultivation. EBENEZER et al. Presco acquired two additional leases as extensions of the Ologbo estate in 2012 (3,000 ha), and in 2014 (2,806) ha. (iii) Ley farming: This is the cultivation of food crops with . Developed in Burma (now Myanmar) in the early 19th century and spreading over the rest of Asia and the tropical world since the 1850s (King 1987), the British introduced the taungya system to Ghana in the 1930s. Historical Development of Agroforestry in the World and in Nepal Agroforestry practices are traditional, very old, and very specific to the local social, economic and agroecological conditions. on the species raised. As word of farming opportunities in government reserves spread, people from land-hungry parts of the country were attracted to the forests. Taungya is a forestry system that involves inter-planting trees with agricultural crops, particularly the local population's staple foods, and so serves to satisfy the farmer's quest for arable land ().Taungya starts as an agroforestry system during the initial three years, and then evolves to a plantation system when the trees form a closed canopy, and farmers are expected to . 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